Crypto means cryptography
The most important cryptography papers spanning the past, present, and future of cryptosystems & cryptology.
Computer Systems Established, Maintained and Trusted by Mutually Suspicious Groups
David L. Chaum — Published April 1982
This paper is the first known proposal for a blockchain protocol.
Chaum describes the design of a distributed computer system that can be established, maintained, and trusted by mutually suspicious groups.
It is a public record-keeping system with group membership consistency and private transaction computations that protects individual privacy through physical security.
The building blocks of this system include physically-secure “vaults”, existing cryptographic primitives (symmetric and asymmetric encryption, cryptographic hash functions, digital signatures), and a new primitive introduced by Chaum—threshold secret sharing, i.e. “where some threshold of sub-partial keys are sufficient to reconstruct the original partial key from which the sub-partials were originally formed”.
For more on the history of blockchain technologies, consider On the Origins and Variations of Blockchain Technologies.Download PDF