Crypto means cryptography
The most important cryptography papers spanning the past, present, and future of cryptosystems & cryptology.
On Data Banks and Privacy Homomorphisms
Ronald L. Rivest, Len Adleman, & Michael L. Dertouzos — Published October 1978
In On Data Banks and Privacy Homomorphisms, Rivest, Adleman, and Dertouzos proposed the problems of (1) modifying a hardware computer system to solve the problem of performing operations on encrypted data securely, and (2) the problem of constructing what has come to be known as a fully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme.
The RSA public-key cryptosystem is a partially homomorphic encryption scheme, where the multiplication of the ciphertext C is reflected in the plaintext P:
Encrypt P to get C, multiply C by 2, and then decrypt 2C — and you get 2P. That’s a homomorphism: perform some mathematical operation to the ciphertext, and that operation is reflected in the plaintext.” — Bruce Schneier
A FHE cryptosystem is one that is homomorphic under both addition and multiplication and yet still secure. FHE makes it possible to perform arbitrary computations on encrypted data while it remains encrypted — and without needing a secret key. In short, you can process encrypted data without ever decrypting it.
It was not until 2009 when Craig Gentry published a plausible construction of a FHE scheme.Download PDF